La militarización fronteriza: flujos migratorios y régimen de Schengen

Militarization of borders: migration flows and the Schengen regime


Palabras clave:

militarización de fronteras, espacio Schengen, Unión Europea (UE), crisis migratoria


Se explora la paradoja de un mundo globalizado y cooperativo que parece propicio para la apertura, pero que presencia la proliferación de fronteras cerradas, barreras físicas y aumento de militarización en las fronteras. El objetivo es investigar, analizar y categorizar diferentes tipos de militarización en las fronteras con perspectivas tanto teóricas como prácticas. Se proponen nuevas definiciones para la militarización en las fronteras que abarcan desde formas evidentes hasta sutiles. Este estudio se centra en la militarización específicamente en países periféricos en los márgenes exteriores del régimen Schengen de la Unión Europea, utiliza una metodología de estudio de casos comparativos. Ofrece una visión profunda de dos casos similares y de la militarización práctica posterior a la crisis migratoria europea de 2015-2016 en Croacia y Polonia. Las conclusiones arrojan luz sobre los efectos a largo plazo de la crisis migratoria en Europa y el creciente fenómeno de la militarización fronteriza sutil y encubierta, pese a las limitaciones de la investigación, con enfoque eurocéntrico y generalizado.  


This article explores the paradox of a globalized cooperative world that appears conducive to openness, yet simultaneously witnesses the proliferation of closed borders, physical barriers, and increased border militarization. The objective is to research, analyze, and categorize the various types of border militarization, offering both theoretical and practical perspectives. We propose new definitions for border militarization to encompass its diverse expressions, ranging from overt to subtle forms. This study focuses on border militarization within Europe, specifically in peripheral countries on the outer fringes of the European Union’s Schengen regime, employing a comparative case study methodology. It provides in-depth insights into two similar cases and practical militarization following the 2015-2016 European migration crisis in Croatia and Poland. While the research has limitations, including its eurocentric focus and limited generalizability, the conclusions shed light on post-migration crisis long-term effects in Europe and the growing phenomenon of subtle and covert border militarization.


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Sección temática. Seguridad fronteriza en el siglo XXI

Biografía del autor/a

Marta Zorko

Croata. Doctorada en relaciones internacionales y seguridad nacional por la Facultad de Ciencias Políticas de la University of Zagreb. Es profesora asistente en la misma facultad enseñando geografía política y geopolítica. También enseña en la Academia Militar Croata. Líneas de investigación: geopolítica, estudios fronterizos, estudios de seguridad. Publicación reciente: Zorko, M. & Lučev, J. (2021). Geographical patterns and geo-economic reasoning of pandemic consequences: old geopolitical “games” in post-COVID global order. Sociologija i prostor, 59(219), 89-118.

Robert Mikac

Croata. Doctorado en relaciones internacionales y seguridad nacional por la Facultad de Ciencias Políticas de la University of Zagreb. Profesor asistente en la misma facultad enseñando gestión de crisis. También enseña en la Academia Militar Croata. Líneas de investigación: estudios de seguridad, específicamente en gestión estratégica, armas pequeñas y ligeras, gestión de crisis y recuperación, migración y protección de infraestructuras civiles y críticas. Publicación reciente: Mikac, R. (2022). Determination and development of definitions and concepts of hybrid threats and hybrid wars: comparison of solutions at the level of the European Union, NATO and Croatia. Politics in Central Europe, 18(3), 355-374.

Rory Yoder

Americano. Máster en ciencias políticas por la Facultad de Ciencias Políticas de la University of Zagreb. Es piloto de la Guardia Costera y oficial de ingeniería aeronáutica que actualmente se desempeña como becario Olmsted en Zagreb, Croacia. Líneas de investigación: migración irregular tanto en la UE como en EUA. Sus estudios continuos se centran en un análisis comparativo de Frontex y la Guardia Costera de los Estados Unidos en sus respuestas a la migración marítima irregular. Publicación reciente: Yoder, R. (2022). Iregularne migracije pomorskim rutama prema EU i SAD-u: Različita rješenja za slične izazove? [Master thesis, Sveučilište u Zagrebu]. FPZG repozitorij.