Solidaridad digital y migraciones: análisis sobre el uso de tecnologías digitales entre ciudadanos venezolanos en Quito, Ecuador


Digital solidarity and migrations: analysis on the use of digital technologies among Venezuelan citizens in Quito, Ecuador

https://doi.org/10.21670/ref.2218102

Autores/as

Palabras clave:

solidaridad digital, migración transnacional, migración venezolana, Ecuador

Resumen

El objetivo principal del artículo fue analizar el uso de tecnologías de comunicación digital en las prácticas de solidaridad desarrolladas entre migrantes venezolanos en la ciudad de Quito, Ecuador. La metodología aplicada se basó en entrevistas a profundidad y análisis de contenidos en grupos de WhatsApp. El trabajo de campo fue realizado entre junio de 2020 y marzo de 2021. Para el muestreo se empleó una estrategia no probabilística (snowball sampling). La naturaleza cualitativa del estudio no permite generalizaciones estadísticas. No obstante, los resultados obtenidos caracterizan las prácticas de solidaridad digital en grupos con lazos sociales fuertes (familias) y débiles. Las conclusiones indican que, en las familias transnacionales la solidaridad digital se basa en sentidos de co-presencia que facilitan el cumplimiento de obligaciones morales, la generación de economías de cuidado y el soporte emocional; mientras que, en grupos sin conexiones previas la solidaridad se construye mediante comunidades digitales en espacios masivos e impersonales.

Abstract

This article aims to analyze the use of digital communication technologies in the solidarity processes of Venezuelan migrants in Quito, Ecuador. The methodology applied was based on in-depth interviews and content analysis of WhatsApp groups. The research was conducted between June 2020 and March 2021. A non-probabilistic strategy (snowball sampling) was applied for the sampling. The results illustrate the dynamics of digital solidarity both in groups with strong ties (families) and weak ties. However, due to its qualitative nature, these results cannot be generalized. The conclusions show that in transnational families, solidarity develops from a sense of co-presence that allows the fulfillment of moral obligations, the generation of an economy of care, and emotional support. On the other hand, in the case of migrants without connective ties with each other, solidarity occurs through the construction of digital communities in large and impersonal groups.

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2022-09-19

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Biografía del autor/a

Jorge Mantilla

Ecuatoriano. Doctorando en antropología y comunicación por la Universitat Rovira y Virgili de España, y maestro en antropología y desarrollo por la Radboud University de los Países Bajos. Actualmente es docente en la Universidad de Otavalo. Líneas de investigación: migraciones transnacionales, procesos de interculturalidad y antropología urbana. Publicación reciente: Mantilla, J., Mantilla, P. & Echeverría, A. (2021). El teatro como herramienta pedagógica para la difusión de la interculturalidad: estudio etnográfico con alumnos de educación secundaria en Otavalo, Ecuador. Revista Arteterapia. Papeles de arteterapia y educación artística para la inclusión social, 16. https://doi.org/10.5209/arte.68735