La seguridad fronteriza rusa: tendencias en la transformación postsoviética

Russian border security: trends of post-soviet transformation


Palabras clave:

Rusia, seguridad fronteriza, geopolítica, securitización, aislamiento


Tras la desintegración de la URSS, Rusia enfrentó la tarea de reformar su política de seguridad fronteriza, previamente enfatizada en un estricto control sobre los movimientos transfronterizos de entrada y salida. Desafío agravado aún más por la gestión sin precedentes de 13 mil kilómetros de fronteras recién establecidas con otros estados de la desaparecida Unión Soviética. Se examinan las tendencias evolutivas en la política de seguridad fronteriza de Rusia, la gestión de estas nuevas fronteras, los esfuerzos por integrar los espacios de seguridad fronteriza de Rusia con los de sus aliados postsoviéticos y los impactos del expansionismo geopolítico. La transformación de la política de seguridad fronteriza rusa ha dado resultados mixtos. Por un lado, Rusia ha adoptado eficazmente enfoques modernos para la gestión del flujo transfronterizo. Por otro lado, el alcance de los temas cubiertos por la agenda de seguridad fronteriza de Rusia sigue siendo amplio, abarca temores geopolíticos y otros problemas que no pueden ser gestionados eficazmente por las agencias encargadas de la gestión fronteriza de rutina.


After the disintegration of the USSR, Russia confronted the task of reforming its border security policy, which had previously emphasized stringent control over both inbound and outbound cross-border movements. This challenge was further compounded by the unprecedented management of 13 thousand kilometers of newly established borders with other states of the former Soviet Union. This article examines the evolving trends in Russian border security policy, encompassing the management of these new borders, endeavors to integrate Russia’s border security spaces with those of its post-Soviet allies, and the impacts of geopolitical expansionism. The transformation of Russian border security policy has yielded mixed results. On one hand, Russia has effectively embraced modern approaches to cross-border flow management. On the other hand, the scope of issues covered by Russia’s border security agenda remains extensive, encompassing geopolitical fears and other issued that cannot be managed effectively by the agencies tasked with routine border management.


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Sección temática. Seguridad fronteriza en el siglo XXI

Biografía del autor/a

Serghei Golunov

Ruso. Doctor en Ciencias Políticas por la Nizhny Novgorod State University, Rusia. Actualmente es profesor de la Suleyman Demirel University (SDU), (Kaskelen, Kazajstán). Su investigación se centra principalmente en cuestiones fronterizas postsoviéticas y estados postsoviéticos no reconocidos. Publicación reciente: Golunov, S. (2014). The elephant in the room: corruption and cheating in Russian universities. Ibidem Press.