La seguridad fronteriza rusa: tendencias en la transformación postsoviética

Russian border security: trends of post-soviet transformation


Palabras clave:

Rusia, seguridad fronteriza, geopolítica, securitización, aislamiento


Tras la desintegración de la URSS, Rusia enfrentó la tarea de reformar su política de seguridad fronteriza, previamente enfatizada en un estricto control sobre los movimientos transfronterizos de entrada y salida. Desafío agravado aún más por la gestión sin precedentes de 13 mil kilómetros de fronteras recién establecidas con otros estados de la desaparecida Unión Soviética. Se examinan las tendencias evolutivas en la política de seguridad fronteriza de Rusia, la gestión de estas nuevas fronteras, los esfuerzos por integrar los espacios de seguridad fronteriza de Rusia con los de sus aliados postsoviéticos y los impactos del expansionismo geopolítico. La transformación de la política de seguridad fronteriza rusa ha dado resultados mixtos. Por un lado, Rusia ha adoptado eficazmente enfoques modernos para la gestión del flujo transfronterizo. Por otro lado, el alcance de los temas cubiertos por la agenda de seguridad fronteriza de Rusia sigue siendo amplio, abarca temores geopolíticos y otros problemas que no pueden ser gestionados eficazmente por las agencias encargadas de la gestión fronteriza de rutina.


After the disintegration of the USSR, Russia confronted the task of reforming its border security policy, which had previously emphasized stringent control over both inbound and outbound cross-border movements. This challenge was further compounded by the unprecedented management of 13 thousand kilometers of newly established borders with other states of the former Soviet Union. This article examines the evolving trends in Russian border security policy, encompassing the management of these new borders, endeavors to integrate Russia’s border security spaces with those of its post-Soviet allies, and the impacts of geopolitical expansionism. The transformation of Russian border security policy has yielded mixed results. On one hand, Russia has effectively embraced modern approaches to cross-border flow management. On the other hand, the scope of issues covered by Russia’s border security agenda remains extensive, encompassing geopolitical fears and other issued that cannot be managed effectively by the agencies tasked with routine border management.


Agamben, G. (1998). Homo sacer: sovereign power and bare life. Stanford University Press.

Albert, M. (1998). On boundaries, territory and postmodernity: an international relations perspective. Geopolitics, 3(1), 53-68. DOI:

Alexseev, M. A. (2003). Economic valuations and interethnic fears: perceptions of Chinese migration in the Russian Far East. Journal of Peace Research, 40(1), 85-102. DOI:

Andreas, P. (2009). Border games: policing the U.S.-Mexico divide. Ithaca.

Añorve Añorve, D. (2010). La transformación del concepto frontera en la transición de la URSS a la Federación Rusa: implicaciones para la supervivencia del Estado. Estudios Fronterizos, 11(22), 9-48. DOI:

Balibar, É. (2002). Politics and the other scene. Verso.

Basaran, T. (2008). Security, law, borders: spaces of exclusion. International Political Sociology, 2(4), 339-354. DOI:

Belnovosti. (2018, November 20). A signal about fortifying the Belarusian-Russian state border was given from Smolensk.

Bigo, D. (2005). Frontier controls in the European Union. Who is in control? Routledge.

Booth, K. (Ed.). (2005). Critical security studies and world politics. Lynne Rienner Publishers. DOI:

Buscemi, F., Duquet, N., Golovko, E. & Woods, E. (2018). Illicit firearms proliferation in the EU periphery: the case of Ukraine. In N. Duquet (Ed.), Triggering terror: illicit gun markets and firearms acquisition of terrorist networks in Europe (pp. 461-480). Flemish Peace Institute.

Buzan, B., Waever, O. & de Wilde, J. (1998). Security. A new framework for analysis. Lynne Rienner Publishers. DOI:

Caspersen, N. (2012). Unrecognized states. The struggle for sovereignty in the modern international system. Polity.

Charter97. (2017, June 14). Andrei Suzdaltsev: smuggling is the policy of the Belarusian state.

Dugin, A. (1997). Fundamentals of geopolitics. Arktogeya.

Dyakova, N. & Chepelkin, M. (1995). Russia’s borders in the 19-20 centuries. Institute for us and Canadian Studies.

European Commission. (2002, July 12). eu-Russia partnership on Kaliningrad (Memo 02/169).›print›MEMO_02_169_EN

Fontanka. (2020, May 1). They may curse us but we are for the Iron Curtain’. Hoteliers of St Petersburg hope for Support from internal tourism.

Golunov, S. (2008). Security factor in Russia’s and Kazakhstan’s policies towards their common border [Doctoral dissertation, Nizhny Novgorod State University]. Academia.

Golunov, S. (2012). EU-Russian border security. Challenges, (mis)perceptions, and responses. Routledge. DOI:

Golunov, S. (2017). Shuttle trade across Russia’s borders with the Baltic states and Poland: between tolerance and suppression. East European Politics and Societies, 31(4), 885-908. DOI:

Golunov, S. & Smirnova, V. (2022). Russian border controls in times of the COVID-19 pandemic: social, political, and economic implications. Problems of Post-Communism, 69(1), 71-82. DOI:

Grishin, M., Gubchenko, V. & Dmitriyev, V. (2001). Problems of national border policy and ways to solve them. BDTs-press.

Haushofer, K. (1927). Grenzen in ihrer geographischen und politischen Bedeutung. Kurt

Vowinckel Verlag.

Herz, J. H. (1957). Rise and demise of the territorial state. World Politics, 9(4), 473-493. DOI:

Holdich, T. H. (1916). Political frontiers and boundary making. Macmillan and Company.

Karpyuk, I. (2014, December 9). A border with auto barrier. Polit.

Kolossov, V. & O’Loughlin, J. (1998). New borders for new world orders: territorialities at the fin-de-siecle. GeoJournal, 44(3), 259-273. DOI:

Kukhianidze, A., Kupatadze, A. & Gotsiridze, R. (2004). Smuggling through Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region of Georgia. The Terrorism, Transnational Crime and Corruption Center (TraCCC).

Kulakov, A. (2000). The system of geopolitical factors and its influence on the border policy of Russian Federation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Academy of the Federal Border Guard Service.

Kulikov, V. (2007, June 8). The Border Guard Service of fsb equips itself only with latest technologies. Rossiiskaya gazeta.

Kulikov, V. (2020, May 31). More than 3.5 million debtors are on the travel ban lists. Rossiyskaya gazeta.

Kulikov, V. (2022, August 3). The Ministry of Justice has accelerated the process of lifting the ban on debtors to travel abroad. Rossiyskaya gazeta.

Lomsadze, G. (2022, September 26). Russian draft dodgers queue at Georgian border. Eurasianet.

Longo, M. (2017). From sovereignty to Imperium: borders, frontiers and the specter of neo-imperialism. Geopolitics, 22(4), 757-771. DOI:

Marshall, T. (2016). Prisoners of geography. Scribner.

Marx, G. T. (2005). Some conceptual issues in the study of borders and surveillance. In E. Zureik & M. Salter (Eds.), Global surveillance and policing. Borders, security, identity (pp. 11-35). Willan Publishing.

Maynes, C. (2023, April 14). Putin signs a tough new military draft law, banning conscripts from fleeing Russia. NPR.

Mead, W. R. (2014, May-June). The return of geopolitics: the revenge of the revisionist powers. Foreign Affairs, 93(3), 69-79.

Ohmae, K. (1995). The end of the nation state: the rise of regional economies. Free Press.

Paasi, A. (1999). Boundaries as social practice and discourse: the Finnish-Russian border. Regional Studies, 33(7), 669-680. DOI:

Poryvaeva, O. & Tadtaev, G. (2020, August 4). Clashes involving migrants broke out on the border between Russia and Kazakhstan. RBC.

President of Russia. (1996, October 5). Fundamentals of the border policy of the Russian Federation. 3/6

President of Russia. (2018, April 25). Fundamentals of the border policy of the Russian Federation. eld=134#whwWxVTMFRWpauqX1 5/12

Putin listed the consequences of a possible Ukraine’s accession to the NATO. (2021, December 8). Izvestia.

Raspopova, A. (2020, May 22). Hiding in trucks, paying fraudsters. What is happening on the border with Belarus. Autonews.

RIA Novosti. (2009, February 12). Up to 40% of drugs from Asia are detained at the border between Russia and Kazakhstan. Nomad.

Rogozin, D. (2003). We will take back Russia. Porog.

Russian Life. (2023, May 24). FSB to seize passports.

Sasunkevich, O. (2015). Informal trade, gender and the border experience: from political borders to social boundaries. Ashgate. DOI:

Sokolov-Mitrich, D. (2001, July 11). The incognito border.

Sputnik Tajikistan. (2022, August 13). Ministry of Internal Affairs reported a record low number of bans to enter the Russian Federation for migrants.

TASS. (2014, December 8). Belarus reopened customs posts on the border with Russia.

TKS. (2008, January 28). Last year, the number of criminal cases initiated by officers of the Siberian Operational Customs increased by 4.5 times.

Toal, G. (2017). Near abroad. Putin, the West, and the contest over Ukraine and the Caucasus. Oxford University Press. DOI:

Tymko, A. (1996). Two borders doctrine. Nezavisimoe voennoe obozrenie 35.

Vares, P. (1999). A torny way to security. In P. Vares (Ed.), Estonia and the European Union: in search of security (pp. 27-38). Institute of International and Social Studies EuroUniversity.

Vaughan-Williams, N. (2009). Border politics: The limits of sovereign power. Edinburgh University Press. DOI:

Yussin, M. (1995, January 31). Customs checkpoints to be kept in spite of the customs union agreement concluded by the three states. Izvestia.






Sección temática. Seguridad fronteriza en el siglo XXI

Biografía del autor/a

Serghei Golunov

Ruso. Doctor en Ciencias Políticas por la Nizhny Novgorod State University, Rusia. Actualmente es profesor de la Suleyman Demirel University (SDU), (Kaskelen, Kazajstán). Su investigación se centra principalmente en cuestiones fronterizas postsoviéticas y estados postsoviéticos no reconocidos. Publicación reciente: Golunov, S. (2014). The elephant in the room: corruption and cheating in Russian universities. Ibidem Press.