Ventanillas de Salud: Desafíos en el acceso a servicios de salud de inmigrantes mexicanos en EE.UU.


Ventanillas de Salud: Defeating challenges in healthcare access for Mexican immigrants in the United States

Palabras clave: Acceso a la salud, consulados, seguro médico, atención preventiva, detección temprana de enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, clínicas comunitarias, Ventanillas de Salud, inmigrantes mexicanos en EE.UU..

Resumen

En 2010 el Affordable Care Act (ACA) brindó mayor acceso a la salud en Estados Unidos, pero los inmigrantes aún enfrentan dificultades, particularmente los indocumentados. Para brindar acceso a servicios de salud a sus connacionales, el gobierno mexicano creó el programa Ventanillas de Salud (VDS). El artículo analiza cambios en el sistema de salud de Estados Unidos a partir del ACA y el papel de las VDS. La metodología cualitativa incluye: revisión de literatura, entrevistas a líderes comunitarios y miembros del gobierno mexicano y cuestionarios enviados a cuatro VDS: Arizona, Florida, Idaho y Texas. Los resultados demuestran que las vds proveen información confiable, acceso económico a servicios de salud, detección temprana de enfermedades crónicas y no transmisibles, especialmente para inmigrantes indocumentados. Se presentan recomendaciones de política pública basadas en evidencias. Las limitaciones radican en que los datos de las cuatro VDS no son representativos de todo el programa.  

Abstract

The 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) improved access to healthcare in the United States. However, immigrants —especially those undocumented— still faced difficulties, which have increased during the Trump administration. In order to bring access to health services to its nationals, the Mexican government has implemented the Health Windows Program (Ventanillas de Salud, or VDS). The article reviews changes in the U.S. healthcare system from the ACA to date, and assesses the role of VDS. The methodology is qualitative, consisting of a literature review, interviews with community leaders and Mexican government officials, and questionnaires sent to four VDS: Arizona, Florida, Idaho and Texas. Results show that VDS provide reliable and affordable access to basic healthcare services, and detection of chronic and non-communicable diseases, especially within undocumented immigrants. Public policy recommendations are offered based on these findings. Limitations of the study include the data collected, which is non-representative of all VDS.

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10-marzo-2020
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Valeria Marina Valle
Mexican, originally from Argentina. PhD. in Political and Social Sciences with orientation in International Relations, Master in Studies in International Relations from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (unam) and Bachelor in International Relations from the Universidad del Salvador, Argentina. Academic of the Department of International Studies of the Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City (uia). Member of the sni, level 1. Research lines: migration and health, international cooperation for development, security, state-diaspora relations and protection mechanisms. Recent publication: Valle, V. M. (2016). An Assessment of Canada’s Healthcare System. Weighing Achievements and Challenges. Norteamérica, 11(2), 193-217.
Wilma Laura Gandoy Vázquez
Mexican. Master in International Law and Bachelor in International Relations from Tecnológico de Monterrey, Mexico City Campus. Member of the Mexican Foreign Service career since 2012 and currently assigned as a Consul for Protection at the Consulate General of Mexico in San Francisco. Research lines: consular protection and assistance to the Mexican community in the United States. Recent publication: Gandoy, W. L. (2019). Atención consular con perspectiva de género. Siempre. http://www.siempre.mx/2019/03/atencion-consular-con-perspectiva-de-genero/  
Karla Angélica Valenzuela Moreno
Mexican. Doctor in Social and Political Sciences from the Universidad Iberoamericana and Master in Migration and Human Settlements from the University of Ryerson. Researcher at the Universidad Iberoamericana, Mexico City, coordinator of the Master's Degree in Migration Studies and member of the sni. Research lines: security, state-diaspora relations and protection mechanisms. Recent publication: Valenzuela, K. A. (2019). Los consulados mexicanos en Estados Unidos: una aproximación desde la protección social. Interdisciplina, 7(18), 59-79.