Factores que promueven la resiliencia entre las mujeres inmigrantes mexicanas en los Estados Unidos: Aplicación de un enfoque de desviación positiva


Factors promoting resilience among Mexican immigrant women in the United States: Applying a positive deviance approach

Palabras clave: mujeres migrantes, salud mental, activos para la salud, desviación positiva.

Resumen

Esta investigación utilizó un enfoque de desviación positiva para identificar mujeres inmigrantes mexicanas (MIM) que han experimentado un gran estrés y que tienen indicadores positivos de salud mental con el fin de determinar los factores detrás de su capacidad de adaptación. Para tal efecto, se identifican y describen los indicadores, fortalezas y recursos que contribuyen a una salud mental positiva. Como resultado se identificó que la resiliencia de las participantes en este estudio emergió como un fenómeno muy dinámico. Las mujeres estudiadas mostraron activos internos que las ayudan a encontrar significado, propósito y desarrollar resiliencia. De manera específica, las redes sociales, familia, actitudes positivas y conductas determinan las fortalezas y el bienestar de este grupo. Esta puede ser la primera exploración de los activos de salud mental de MIM, y si bien la muestra intencional limita la generalización de sus resultados, la especificidad de su población es un punto claro de comparación y referencia, por lo que el estudio es una contribución para el diseño de intervenciones de promoción de la salud con individuos de ascendencia mexicana.

Abstract

This research project used a positive deviance approach to identify Mexican immigrant women (MIW) who have experienced great stress and who have positive mental health indicators in order to determine the factors behind their resilience and coping skills. Signposts, strengths and resources contributing to positive mental health are identified and described. The resilience of participants in this study emerged as a very dynamic phenomenon. A series of internal assets helped these women find meaning, purpose and build resilience. Social networks, families, positive attitudes, and purposeful behaviors determine the strengths and well-being of this group. This may be the first exploration of the mental health assets of MIW. Although the purposive sample in the study limits the generalization of its results, the specificity of its population is a clear point of comparison and reference. The study has implications for the design of health promotion interventions with individuals of Mexican shared ancestry.  

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12-marzo-2018
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Maria Sajquim de Torres
Guatemalteca-estadounidense. Investigadora asociada en el Center for Interdisciplinary Health Research and Evaluation en la University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP). Doctora en Ciencias de la Salud Interdisciplinaria por la UTEP. Mtra. en Antropología por la Northen Arizona University (NAU). Lic. en Psicología por la Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. Actualmente es directora de El Paso Branch of the Living Lab Center for Dialogue and Transformation Borderlands Mexico-usa. Líneas de investigación: inmigración, cultura y salud mental, resiliencia, enfoque de activos para la salud, desviación positiva y métodos mixtos de investigación. Publicación reciente: Sajquim de Torres, M. (2016). Becoming Resilient: A Positive Deviance Inquiry Into the Resilience of Mexican Immigrant Women. Estados Unidos de América: University of Texas at El Paso.
Mark Lusk
Estadounidense. Profesor de trabajo social en la University of Texas at El Paso. El Dr. Lusk fue becario Fulbright en la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú y becario de investigación Fulbright en la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Río de Janeiro. Ha sido profesor visitante en la Universidad de Costa Rica y la University of Guyana. Ha trabajado como consultor en proyectos financiados por la U.S. Agency for International Development, el Departamento de Estado de EE. UU., La Fundación Ford y el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo. Líneas de investigación: migración, resiliencia, trauma y trabajo social internacional. Publicación reciente: Chavez, S., Lusk, M. y Sanchez, S. (2015). Secuelas en la salud mental: el rol de la cultura y la resiliencia en migrantes y refugiados mexicanos en la región de El Paso del Norte. En. P. Barraza, L. Torres, S. Sanchez y Diaz, H. (Eds.) Tácticas y estrategias contra la violencia de género: Antología. México:FONCA, EON Sociales.