The historical variability of the Colorado River current. The link with draft 319

  • Marco Antonio Samaniego López
    samaniego@uabc.edu.mx
    Universidad Autónoma de Baja California
Keywords: transboundary basin, seismic zone, cooperation-conflict, variability.

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to analyze the effects of the historical variability of the Colorado River current and how this variability has been used in the discussions for the control and administration of the mentioned international basin. Based on the analysis of studies carried out by various us engineers, lawyers and politicians, we have shown that since the beginning of the 20th century this variability was known. Specifically, it seeks to explain the meaning and consequences of the issue of variability in minutes 319, signed by the International Boundary and Water Commission, where for the first time, since several sectors have insisted on deepening the issue of defining “extraordinary gear”, arguing that a fixed quota for Mexico did not take into account the climate change factor.

References

Adler, R. W. (2008). Revisiting the Colorado River Compact: Time for a Change? Journal of Natural Resources & Environmental Law, 28(1), 19-47.

Arellano, L. (13 de febrero de 2013). Combaten agricultores acta 319; se manifiestan en Mexicali [Mensaje en un blog].

Barnett, T., Malone, R., Peneell, W., Stammer, D., Stammer, B. y Washington, W. (2004). The Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources in the West: Introduction and Overview. Climatic Change, 62(1-3), 1-11. doi:10.1023/B:CLIM.0000013695.21726.b8

Bauer, C., J. (2010). El abanico de bancos de agua en las Américas. Estudios de Economía Aplicada, 28(2), 227-236.

Birdsong, B. C. (2011). Mapping the Human Right to Water on the Colorado River. Willamette Law Review, 48(117), 117-146.

Blanchard, R. (1924). Geographical Conditions of Water Power Development. The Geographical Review, XIV(1), 88-97.

Bono, R. M. (10 de diciembre de 2012). Minute 319: A Creative Approach to Modifying Mexico-U.S. Hydro-Relations Over the Colorado River [Mensaje de un blog]. Recuperado de http://www.internationalwaterlaw.org/blog/2012/12/10/minute-319

Bureau of Reclamation. (1946). The Colorado River. A natural menace becomes a national resource. A comprehensive report on the development of water resources of the Colorado river basin for irrigation, power production, and other beneficial uses in Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. Estados Unidos de América: Department of Interior, the Bureau of Reclamation.

Christensen, N. y Lettenmaier, D. P. (2006). A Multimodel Ensemble Approach to Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrology and Water Resources of the Colorado River Basin. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, (11), 1417-1434.

Colorado River Commission. (11 de noviembre de 1922). Minutes of the Eleventh Meeting. Santa Fe, Nuevo México, Estados Unidos de América.

Conway, C. J., Nadeau, C. P. y Piest, L. (2010). Fire Helps Restore Natural Disturbance Regime to Benefit Rare and Endangered Marsh Birds Endemic to the Colorado River. Ecological Applications, 20(7), 2024-2035.

Cook, B. I., Ault, T. R. y Smerdon, J. E. (2015). Unprecedented 21st Century Drought Risk in the American Southwest and Central Plains. Science Advances, 1(1), 1-7. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400082

Cortez, A., Whiteford, S. y Chávez, M. (Coords.). (2005). Seguridad, agua y desarrollo. El futuro de la frontera México-Estados Unidos. Baja California, México: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte, Michigan State University.

Cruz-Castillo, M. (Abril de 2002). Catálogo de las fallas regionales activas en el norte de la Baja California, México. Geos, Unión Geofísica Mexicana, 37-42.

Enríquez, E. (1976). El tratado entre México y los Estados Unidos de América sobre ríos internacionales. Una lucha nacional de noventa años. México: Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociales-Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Fahlund, A., Choy, M. L. J. y Szeptycki, L. (2014). Water in the West. California Journal of Politics and Policy. doi:10.1515/cjpp-2013-0043, pp.1-42

Farmer, J. (1996). Glen Canyon and the Persistence of Wilderness. The Western Historical Quarterly, 27(2), 210-222.

Forman frente común en defensa del agua del valle de Mexicali [Mensaje en un blog]. (16 de enero de 2013). Uniradio Informa. Recuperado de http://www.uniradioinforma.com/noticias/bajacalifornia/169229/forman-frente-comun-en-defensa-del-agua-del-valle-de-mexicali.html

Fox, J. (27 de abril de 2015). William Shatner's California Pipe Dream. Sending Washington's Water to California is DOA. Blomberg View. Recuperado de https://www.bloomberg.com/view/articles/2015-04-27/william-shatner-s-california-pipe-dream

Glenn, E. P., Felger, R. S., Burquez, A. y Turner, D. S. (1992). Cienega de Santa Clara: Endangered Wetland in the Colorado River Delta, Sonora, Mexico. Natural Resources Journal, (32), 817-824.

Glenn, E. P., Garcia-Hernandez, J., Congdon, C., y Luecke, D. (1999). Status of Wetlands Supported by Agricultural Drainage Water in the Colorado River Delta, Mexico. Horticultural Science, 34(1), 16-21.

Glenn, E. P., Lee, C., Felger, R., y Zengel, S. (1996). Effects of Water Management on the Wetlands of the Colorado River Delta, Mexico. Conservation Biology, 10(4), 1175-1186.

Glenn, E., Tanner, R., Mendez, S., Kehret, T., Moore, D., Garcia, J., y Valdés, C. (1998). Growth Rates, Salt Tolerance and Water Use Characteristics of Native and Invasive Riparian Plants from the Delta of the Colorado River, Mexico. Journal of Arid Environments, 40(3), 281-294.

Gray, L. C. (1913). The Economic Possibilities of Conservation. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 27(3), 497-518.

Haro, S. (1 de enero de 2017). Revive discusión por el agua. Semanario Zeta. Recuperado de http://zetatijuana.com/2017/01/01/revive-discusion-por-el-agua/

Harvey, M. W. T. (1991). Echo Park, Glen Canyon, and the Postwar Wilderness Movement. Pacific Historical Review, 60(1), 43-67.

Hicks, W. (2007). Columbia River Diversion as a Public Revenue Source. (White paper). Recuperado de http://aquadoc.typepad.com/waterwired/files/Columbia_River_Revenue.pdf

Hundley, N. C. Jr. (1963). The Dividing Waters: Mexican-American Controversies Over the Waters of the Colorado River and The Rio Grande, 1880-1960. California, Estados Unidos de América: University of California.

Hundley, N. C. Jr. (1975). Water and the West. The Colorado River Compact and the Politics of Water in the American West. California, Estados Unidos de América: University of California Press.

Jewell, S. y Guerra, J. L. (31 de marzo de 2014). México y Estados Unidos, colaboración en el río Colorado. Milenio. Recuperado de http://www.milenio.com/firmas/sally_jewell_y_juan_jose_guerra_abud_sally_jewell_y_juan_jose_guerra_abud/Mexico-Unidos-colaboracion-rio-Colorado_18_272552781.html

Kelly, B. (3 de agosto de 2015). Drought relief, by rail. Railway Age. Recuperado de http://www.railwayage.com/index.php/freight/class-i/drought-relief-by-rail.html

La Rue, E. C. (1916). Colorado River and its Utilization (Water Supply Paper No. 395). Department of Interior, United States Geological Survey, Government Printing Office, Washington, Estados Unidos de América.

La Rue, E. C. (1925). Water, Power and Flood Control, of Colorado River Below Grenn River, Utah (Water Supply Paper No. 556). Department of Interior, United States Geological Survey Goverment Printing Office, Washington, Estados Unidos de América.

Luecke, D., Pitt, J., Congdon, C., Glenn, E., Valdés-Casillas, C. y Briggs, M. (1999). El delta una vez más: restaurando el hábitat ribereño y los humedales del delta del río Colorado. Washington, Distrito de Columbia, Estados Unidos de América: Enviromental Defense.

McCright, M. y Dunlap, R. (2000). Challenging Global Warming as a Social Problem: An Analysis of the Conservative Movement's Counter-Claims. Social Problems, 47(4), 499-522.

Muñoz, P. (18 de agosto de 2015). E. U. usufructúa agua del Valle de Mexicali: CCC. La jornada. Recuperado de http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2015/08/18/sociedad/038n2soc


Nowak, K., Hoerling, M., Rajagopalan, B. y Zagona, E. (2012). Colorado River Basin Hydroclimatic Variability. Journal of Climate, 25(12), 4389-4403.

Olson, R. L. (1926). The Colorado River Compact (tesis de doctorado). Estados Unidos de América: Harvard University.

Overpeck, J., Garfin, G., Jardine, A., Busch, D. E., Cayan, D., Dettinger, M. … y Udall, B. (2013). Summary for Decision Makers. En G. Garfin, A. Jardine, R. Merideth, M. Black, y S. LeRoy (Eds.), Assessment of Climate Change in the Southwest United States: A Report Prepared for the National Climate Assessment, (pp. 1-20). Washington, Distrito de Columbia, Estados Unidos de América: Island Press.

Parsons, M. B. (1950). Party and Pressure Politics in Arizona's Opposition to Colorado River Development. Pacific Historical Review, 19(1), 47-58.

Robison, J., Bratrschovsky, K., Latcham, J., Morris, E., Palmer, V. y Villanueva, A. (2014). Challenge and response in the Colorado River Basin. Water Policy, 16(s1), 12-57.

Samaniego, M. A. (2006). Ríos internacionales entre México y Estados Unidos. Los tratados de 1906 y 1944. México: El Colegio de México, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California.

Samaniego, M. A. (2015). Usos sociales del agua y medio ambiente en la cuenca internacional del río Colorado, Región y Sociedad, (63), 61-96.

Sánchez, V. (2005). La demanda de agua en la región fronteriza México-Estados Unidos y los desafíos institucionales. En M. Chávez, S. Whiteford y A. A. Cortez (Coords.), Seguridad, agua y desarrollo. El futuro de la frontera México-Estados Unidos. México: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte.

Seavey, C. L. (1928). What the Boulder Dam Project Means to California and to the Nation. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 135(1), 127-132.

Shor, G. G. Jr., Russell, W. R. y McGowan, D. D. (1976). Seismic Refractation Studies in the Southern California Borderland 1949-1974. Estados Unidos de América: University of California, San Diego Marine Physical Laboratory on the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

Simon, S. (4 de mayo de 1990). Hahn Calls for an Aqueduct to the Northwest. Los Angeles Times. Recuperado de http://articles.latimes.com/1990-05-04/local/me-181_1_columbia-river-water

Smith, T. G. (1995). John Kennedy, Stewart Udall, and New Frontier Conservation. Pacific Historical Review, 64(3), 329-362.

Squillace, M. (2012). Water Transfers for a Changing Climate (Working Paper Number 12-02). Estados Unidos de América: University of Colorado Law School.

Valdés-Casillas, C., Hinojosa-Huerta, O., Munoz-Viveros, M., Zamora-Arroyo, F., Carrillo-Guerrero, Y., Delgado-Garcia, S. … y Luecke, D. (1998). Information Database and Local Outreach Program for the Restoration of the Hardy River Wetlands, Lower Colorado River Delta, Baja California and Sonora, Mexico. México: Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey.

Work, H. (1925). [Hubert Work, Secretario del Interior a Frank B. Kellog, Secretario de Estado]. National Archives (Record group 115, entry 7, caja 36 032.5), Denver, Colorado, Estados Unidos de América.

Material legislativo

Arizona vs California, 207 U.S. 564 (1963).

Arizona vs California, 373 U.S. 546 (1963).

Boletín 1398. Pide senado proveer de suficiente agua de riego a campesinos del valle de Mexicali, 18 de abril de 2013. Recuperado de http://comunicacion.senado.gob.mx/index.php/informacion/boletines/6554-boletin-1398-pide-senado-proveer-de-suficiente-agua-de-riego-a-campesinos-del-valle-de-mexicali.html

Boulder Canyon Reclamation Project. 1926. Committee on irrigation and reclamation, report 3331, rep. 654, part 1 [Senate 66 congress].

Colorado River Development. Colorado River investigations water storage and power development Grand Canyon to the Imperial Valley 1928, 70 congress session, documento 180, [Senado de los Estados Unidos, Goverment Printing Office].

Dictamen de acuerdo del congreso del estado de Baja California por el que se exhorta a la celebración de una mesa de trabajo en relación con la firma del acta 319 entre México y Estados Unidos. 9 de abril de 2013. Recuperado de http://sil.gobernacion.gob.mx/Archivos/Documentos/2013/04/asun_2967003_20130416_1366122205.pdf

Hearings before the subcomitte on irrigation and reclamation, H.R. 4671 and similar bills to authorize the construction, operation, and maintenance of the lower Colorado River basin Project [89 congress, Senado de los Estados Unidos]. Agosto-septiembre de 1965.

Hearings before the subcomitte on irrigation and reclamation, H.R. 3300 and similar bills to authorize the construction, operation, and maintenance of the lower Colorado River basin Project. [90 congress, Senado de los Estados Unidos]. Marzo de 1967.

Minute No. 317 Conceptual Framework for U.S.-Mexico Discussions on Colorado River Cooperate Actions, International Boundary and Water Comission. United States and México. 17 de junio de 2010. Recuperado de https://www.ibwc.gov/Files/Minutes/Minute_317.pdf

Minute No. 318 Adjustment of Delivery Schedules for Water Alloted to Mexico for the Years 2010 Through 2013 as a Result of Infraestructure Damage in Irrigation District 014, Rio Colorado, Caused by the April 2010 Earthquake in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California. International Boundary and Water Comission. United States and México. 17 de diciembre de 2010. Recuperado de https://www.ibwc.gov/Files/Minutes/Min_318.pdf

Minute No. 319 Interim International Cooperative Measures in the Colorado River Basin Through 2017 and Extension of Minute 318 Cooperative Measures to Adress the Continued Efects of the April 2010 Earthquake in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, International Boundary and Water Comission. United States and México. 20 de noviembre de 2012. Recuperado de https://www.ibwc.gov/Files/Minutes/Minute_319.pdf

Minute No. 319 of the International Boundary and Water Comission, United States of America and Mexico. Boundary Waters. Threaties and Other International Acts Series 12-1127. [Department of State]. 20 de Noviembre de 2012. Recuperado de https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/205768.pdf
National Archives Denver, Record Group 115, caja 27 64 B. Denver, Colorado, Estados Unidos de América.

Water Treaty with Mexico 1945 [Comité de Relaciones Exteriores del Senado de los Estados Unidos, Government Printing Office].
Published
6-September-2017
Section
Articles
Share
Marco Antonio Samaniego López
Mexican. Doctor in History by El Colegio de México. Researcher at the Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas of the Universidad Autónoma de Baja California (UABC). Bachelor in Pedagogy and Bachelor of History (UABC). Research lines: Mexico-United States border as social construction, history and collective memory, history of Baja California and its relations with border areas. Recent publications: El Bureau of Reclamation: los cambios de sus políticas hidráulicas y ambientales y su relación con la Comisión Internacional de Límites y Aguas, Cuencas Transfronterizas (2017), and El poblado fronterizo de Tijuana, Emiliano Zapata  y la revoluzione da tavolino, Historia Mexicana (2017).